As mentioned, typically utilization rates are on a take-half, leave-half... 3. Using an appropriate stocking rate for the rangeland is one of the first and the most important decisions for successful range management (Hein and Weikard, 2004; Quaas et al., 2007). The more intensively the horses and pasture are managed, the more horses the land can support. At a moderate stocking rate, only half the amount available for consumption (225 pounds per acre) can be used by livestock. This article uses three sets of data which explores this balance of stocking rates, productivity and profit. Adapted by Miller (2002), Bothma, J. du P., van Rooyen, N., van Rooyen, W., 2004. If the purpose for stocking is population enhancement at harvest, then stocking rates are quite dense and the fish size at harvest is smaller. What is an AUM? If you haven't yet, read our post on how to calculate pasture inventory. Livestock grazing comparison units are used for assessing the overall effect on grazing land of different types of animals (or of mixtures of animals), expressed either as a total for a whole field or farm, or as units per hectare (ha) or acre.For example, using UK government Livestock Units (LUs) from the 2003 scheme a particular 10 ha (25-acre) pasture field might be able to support 15 adult cattle or 25 … This equals 12.8 animal unit days of grazing per acre (225 divided by 17.64 pounds per day) before grazing must be stopped until regrowth occurs. If you have a herd of 100 of them, you have 80 AUs. Agriculture Note AG0590: Dry sheep equivalents for comparing different classes of livestock. CRS Report for Congress Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition. 5.1). In the former case, the buyer would probably settle for phase I fish in the 450 to 1000/Kg range and stock at densities as high as 50,000/ha. Congressional Research Service, FAO. Start with estimating your pasture inventory in each pasture. Stocking densities for phase II production range from 10,000-250,000/ha, however densities in the range of 25,000 to 60,000/ha have resulted in more uniform fish and better overall survival (Jenkins et al., 1989). For example, a producer who sells breeding stock, which is priced based on their individual weight gain on pasture, will want to use a relatively lower stocking rate to maximize individual animal performance. Stocking rate on this farmlet was 4.5 LU/ha, while the majority of the winter feed requirements were imported from outside the grazing platform. This measurement is made by clipping and weighing the sample inside of grazing exclosures (Bidwell and Woods, 2000; Thorne and Stevenson, 2007). FAO: Tropical Livestock Units (TLU). If we have 100 acres and 100 yearling steers weighing 700 lbs., the stocking rate is one steer/acre or 700 lbs. SR 910.91, European Commission for Agriculture and Environment, Womach, J., 2005. Key Takeaway: Stocking rate and carrying capacity are functions of animals, grass, and time. Animal Density (AD) is defined as (AU)/grazed acre. Instead of viewing stocking rate and carrying capacity as fixed numbers, adaptive grazing management thinks of these as variables that change over the season. in: R.F Barnes et al. Calculations of stocking rates must include additional factors such as distance to water, slope, fire, and climatic variability (McGranahan and Kirkman, 2013). Without supplement, the winter-born, fall-weaned steers and heifers had ADG of 2.8 lb/da when forage mass did not limit nor restrict ad libitum intake at 1.5 hd/acre. Note that slope of the linear portion of the curve typically is more negative as forage digestibility increases. Industry structure. As the level of animal gain increases (as a response to biological factors), the economic optimum stocking rate increases. Try PastureMap for free and make the grazing math a breeze using our stocking calculator. Total animal production per unit area of pasture responds differently than individual animal production (Fig. The rate of the increase (i.e., slope) in individual animal performance with decreasing stocking rate is related to forage nutritive value; and the greater the nutritive value of the forage the faster animal performance increases as stocking rate is reduced (Fig. The optimal stocking rate required to maximize production per unit of land area varies with the quantity and quality of forage produced (Conner, 199 1). Similarly, the stocking density of the paddock can be expressed as 10 horses/2 acres = 5 horses/acre (0.1 horses/ha). Calculate stocking rate for a flerd with 30% of forage used by sheep and 70% of forage used by cattle. Researchers Study Modified Intensive-Early Stocking Rates. 5.1). Maximum individual animal production will nearly always occur at a lower stocking rate than maximum production per acre (Fig. Compendium of Agricultural–Environmental Indicators 1989-91 to 2000, FAO: Tropical livestock units (TLU). Total Land Area ÷ [(# AUs) x (grazing season)] = Stocking Rate 100 ÷ (60 x 6) = 0.27 acres per AUM or 1.7 acres for the season. Stocking rates or densities are then expressed as Livestock Units per hectare (LU/ha). Therefore, the stocking rate should be lower than the carrying capacity. Ninety-four cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 stocking rates (2.2, 2.7, 3.1, 3.7, and 4.3 cows/ha) in a completely randomized design for 3 years. High cattle and feed prices tend to put downward pressure on stocking rates, whereas lower prices tend to have the opposite effect. Grazing Livestock Unit (GLU) figures currently in use for farm management, A. Sandhage-Hofmann, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2016. A calf refers to any animal under six months old. Starting from an overstocked condition, as stocking rate decreases production per acre increases. My paddocks range from 3-8 acres accordingly to the terrain and how I could access the water system. Now that you know how many ADs are in your pasture, you need to estimate how many units to run. Adapted by Schweizer Bundesrat. FAO: Tropical Livestock Units (TLU). In other words, the food-fish market demand in size of fish dictates the stocking strategy of the phase I buyers. Standing biomass should be measured in an area that has not been grazed since spring (green-up). Relationship between stocking rates and nitrate leaching losses in grazed or mixed grassland. You can find out more about pasture utilisation for cattle producers in the MLA More Beef from Pastures pasture utilisation module. You might have avg 800 lb steers, so each of them is 0.8 AU. Stocking Rates in Texas vary from 1 cow per acre on heavily managed pasture in the Eastern portion of the state to 1 cow per 150 acres (4 cows per section) in the Trans Pecos Region of the state. Exchange rates. The stocking rate in the example property is 9.0 DSE/ha. Figure 1 indicates that maximum individual animal performance occurs at light stocking rates because there is little competition for the best forage plants. Some correcting parameters influence the CC of the rangeland. On well-fertilised grassland, about 2.5 t of liveweight/ha would be a good target in the early season falling subsequently to 1–2 t/ha later in the season. When calculating stocking rates or densities, livestock units (LU) are used, sometimes referred to as cow equivalents (ce). ADs / AUs = Graze Period (how long you can graze in that pasture). The relationship of gain per animal and gain per acre with stocking rate or grazing pressure. The AU allows farmers and conservationists to standardize stocking rates across animals of different types and sizes. Stocking Rate is a function of animal density including consideration of percentage of the time the animals are on the pasture. Stocking Rate Effects on Livestock . These estimates are based on grazing research trials from around the state. Stocking rate also has a major impact on animal performance and overall profitability of the livestock production system. Now, her stocking rate is 11.6 AU per 8 acres or 1.45 AU/acre. But when you start doing adaptive grazing or planning on a grazing chart for the first time, the grazing math can quickly feel complicated. A 750-acre pasture has a recommended stocking rate of 1.2 AUM’s/acre. Global cattle prices. Herds were seasonal calving, with only minor differences in grazing management to optimize the profitability of each stocking rate (SR). Planning grazing strategies for Better Returns. Whether you're rotational grazing, trying out adaptive grazing, or into management intensive grazing, the basic grazing math is very similar. Now let us use the AU concept to standardize their stocking rates. 51 (2011) 420–432, Lockhart and Wiseman's Crop Husbandry Including Grassland (Eighth Edition), The output of particular grazing systems is strongly correlated with the, MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Meat Production in Organic Farming, Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences (Second Edition). Two ponies at 600 pounds (272.2 kg) each = 2 × 600/1000 = 1.2 AU, Five horses at 1000 pounds (453.6 kg) each = 5 × 1000/1000 = 5 AU, Three draft horses at 1800 pounds (816.5 kg) each = 3 × 1800/1000 = 5.4 AU, 11.6 AU/8 acres (3.2 ha) = 1.45 AU/acre (3.6 AU/ha). The different grazing and browsing requirements of species were determined, along with the grazing and browsing capacity of rangeland were determined. If the 20 acres (8.1 ha) of pasture from the previous example are divided into five paddocks of 2 acres (0.8 ha) each for rotational grazing (the group of horses graze only one paddock at a time), the stocking density of the paddock grazed is 2 ac/10 horses = 0.2 acres/horse (0.08 ha/horse). A Re-assessment of the Stock Unit System. On intensively managed grassland it would be normal to find dairy cows allocated about 0.2–0.25 ha per head at this time. Rouquette et al. An AUM also is a common way of expressing stocking rates, such as “my pasture can support 125 AUM in an average year of growth.” The standard animal unit is a 1,000-pound cow with a 6-month-old or younger calf by her side. I could easily do a cow/c per 1.5-2 acres. Under adverse environmental conditions, such as prolonged hot, dry periods, horses may need to be temporarily removed from the pastures to avoid irreparable damage to the forage stand. However, a number of investigations have not been able to demonstrate this. Ready for a simple tool to calculate stocking rate and carrying capacity? ADG followed by a different letter within a supplement column, differ at. As a result of the well-understood changes in the rate of growth of grass as the season progresses it is usual to find that the area devoted to grazing expands during this period. It is also assumed that 50% of the annual peak standing crop can be removed from the ecological site without Stocking rate calculations are an integral part of the applications for EU Single Farm Payment Stewardship Schemes, details of which are supplied by Natural England. This number depends heavily on management of the pastures. 5.1). State of Victoria, Department of Primary Industries, Government of Western Australia, Department of Agriculture and Food. 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