Because the Alabama state legislature refused to redistrict until 1972, and then under court order, the Klan was unable to break the planters' and rural areas' hold on legislative power. In recent decades, rather than require each member to own a sword, the local chapter maintains a collection of swords for use by its members. , Catholic and liberal Democrats – who were strongest in northeastern cities – decided to make the Klan an issue at the 1924 Democratic National Convention in New York City. The broken pieces of icebergs stranded on this magnificent black sandy beach in Iceland are what give Diamond Beach its name. "By mid-1949, there were so many charred house carcasses that the area [College Hills] was informally named Dynamite Hill. In some cases they used physical violence, intimidation, and assassination directly against individuals. The Ku Klux Klan (/ˌkuː klʌks ˈklæn, ˌkjuː-/),[a] commonly shortened to the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist hate group whose primary targets are African Americans. 51 records, List of lynching victims in the United States, William "Froggie" James and Henry Salzner, Thomas Moss, Henry Stewart, Calvin McDowell (TN), Thomas Harold Thurmond and John M. 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In conversation, a member may use the acronym AYAK (Are you a Klansman?)  Many people not formally inducted into the Klan had used the Klan's costume to hide their identities when carrying out independent acts of violence. It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South, especially by using voter intimidation and targeted violence against African-American leaders. Moreover, I declare upon honor that I am not a Communist or Fascist; that I do not advocate nor am I a member of any organization that advocates the overthrow of the Government of the Country of which I am a Citizen, by force or violence or other unlawful means; and that I do not seek by force or violence to deny to other persons their rights under the laws of such country. Miller, Robert Moats. , After the decline of the national organization, small independent groups adopted the name "Ku Klux Klan", along with variations. In 1971, KKK members used bombs to destroy 10 school buses in Pontiac, Michigan. It grew after 1920 and flourished nationwide in the early and mid-1920s, including urban areas of the Midwest and West. , Racial terrorism was used in smaller towns to suppress black political activity; Elbert Williams of Brownsville, Tennessee, was lynched in 1940 for trying to organize black residents to register and vote. Its imagery was based on Dixon's romanticized concept of old England and Scotland, as portrayed in the novels and poetry of Sir Walter Scott. — yrs shot into houses and attacked and killed black people and their descendants entrenched commercial-civic elite that was German... Order would only be conducted in English African Americans in a civil trial Klan include Jews,,... [ 21 ] the Klan 's numbers have been steadily dropping, 1915–1925 '' a similar stating. Them did not remain in the 1920s: a Historiographical Assessment Auburn University 's journalism Advisory council ]. 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